Chitwan District (Nepali: चितवन जिल्ला) is one of 77 districts of Nepal, and is located in the southwestern part of Province No. 3 with Bharatpur, the fourth largest city of Nepal, as its district headquarters. It covers an area of 2,238.39 km2 (864.25 sq mi), and in 2011 had a population of 579,984 (279,087 male and 300,897 female) people. Bharatpur is a commercial and service center of central south Nepal and major destination for higher education, health care and transportation in the region.
The district takes its name from the Chitwan Valley, one of Nepal's Inner Terai valleys between the Mahabharat and Siwalik ranges, both considered foothills of the Himalayas. Narayangadh is located on the banks of the Narayani River, and is the main town with numerous shopping zones where people come from all over the district and neighboring districts. Chitwan is one of the few remaining undisturbed vestiges of the Terai region, which formerly extended over the foothills of Nepal.
There are several predication on the origin of the name Chitwan. Some of the most satisfactory predications on the origin of its name are:
Chitwan was originally a dense forest ruled by Chitrsen Baba, where different RishiMunis came to have their meditation during ancient time with numbers of wild animals like leopard and Bengal tiger.
The people inhabiting the Chitwan District are predominantly peasant farmers cultivating mainly food and cash crops such as rice, maize, wheat, beans, lentils, mustard and vegetables. The district is the major maize producing area in Nepal, with an area under maize cultivation of 27,170 ha (104.9 sq mi) in the year 2003–04. Maize is cultivated on irrigated /seasonal irrigated land in winter and spring, and on rain fed land in summer. Due to an easy road access, maize produced can be easily distributed to other parts of the country. The poultry industry in the district constitutes a significant proportion of the country's poultry industry.
Chitwan is famous in Nepal for mustard growing and production of mustard oil. This popularity of the mustard in Chitwan is attributed to the predominant soil type silt, resulting from the flooding of the Narayani River and tributaries. Chitwan is also profusely spotted with clay lands, which are very good for growing rice, wheat and vegetables such as cabbage, cauliflower, radish, potato, broccoli, cucumbers, pumpkins, and carrot. Chitwan is also famous for floriculture, mushroom cultivation and bee keeping.
At present Bharatpur's largest business area, Narayangadh, is less accessible due to the movement of the main bus terminal due to the previous king's son's anger with the politics of the citizens of the city. This bus terminal is however no longer in use following a successful people's movement in 2006. It is believed that Nepali leftist revolutionary leader Prachanda spent his childhood and youth in Chitwan. Chitwan is adapting the New Community Movement South Korean model of development. One of the biggest rice mill Agam Food Industry, is situated in Bharatpur-13, chitwan. This industry process rice into various form also employing many local people.
Chitwan is very popular for tasty Taas (Nepali: तास), a spicy fried goat meat dish served with bhuja or cheura available in many restaurants. Momo, Sukuti Khaja Set and other Newa cuisine and Tharu food is also popular. Dal bhat is the staple food of the area, meat and dairy products are also widely consumed. For centuries, traditional fermented foods and beverages have constituted about 20% of the local diet. Depending on altitudinal variation, finger millet, wheat, buckwheat, barley, vegetable, potato, and soybeans are grown.
Chitwan has a particularly rich flora and fauna. Nepal's first national park, the Chitwan National Park together with the adjacent Parsa National Park support a species diversity much higher than any other on the Indian subcontinent. Rare species include Bengal tiger, gharial, rhino, leopards, mugger crocodile, Indian rock python and several species of deer. The protected areas are guarded by a battalion of the Nepal Army and patrolled by anti-poaching units.
The Rapti River flows east to south west in the south of Bharatpur and forms the northern border of the Chitwan National Park. The Narayani River flows north to south in the west of Bharatpur. It is the deepest and also one of the biggest rivers of Nepal. The Narayani Bridge over the river connects Chitwan District with Nawalparasi District of Nepal. Small island, like Nagarban in Narayani river are popular picnic spot.
Bishazari Tal (20 Thousand) Lake is close by Chitwan National Park, about 5 km (3.1 mi) south of Bharatpur. The lake serves as an important bird watching centre and is attractive for bird lovers. It also harbours crocodiles.
Das Dhunga is a famous place in Chitwan. The people's leader Madan Bhandari was killed there in an accident.
Narayangarh is the main shopping area of Bharatpur city, and the main transit point for all the vehicles traveling via the east-west Mahendra Highway, also for the people traveling from Kathmandu, Gorkha, and Pokhara through Mugling. Recently, Narayangarh has become a retail and commercial capital of Chitwan District and Bharatpur Municipality. It is also the center for hospitality industry which includes hotels, lodges, restaurants and transportation hub for the district.
Bharatpur Airport in the central part of the city offered four domestic airlines and one government airline with seven to 11 flights daily to Kathmandu. Mahendra East West Highway connects the city to various parts of the country, and another highway connects Bharatpur with Kathmandu to the north east and with Birgunj on the border of India to the south. Bus, micro bus and other land transportation are available to go out of the city, for internal transportation taxi, rickshaw and car/jeep hiring is available. Hakim Chowk and Chaubiskothi, Shaheed Chok, Pul Chowk, Bel Chowk and Lila Chowk are major centers at intersections of major roads. There are four major local FM radio stations broadcast in Bharatpur, such as Synergy FM, Hamro FM, Radio Triveni, Radio Madi, Radio Chitwan, Radio Kotagiri, Chitwan Online FM, Kalika Music FM, Kalika FM. and Narayani FM. The city also has Beso Channel, "Aviyan Channel", Unique Television and Avass Television.
Land line telephone services and mobile telephone services are available to the majority of areas. There are multiple private Internet service providers.
|Bharatpur||Narayangarh Bazaar||Tandi Bazaar||Parsa Bazaar|
|Parsadhap Bazaar||Birendranagar Bazaar||Muglin Bazaar||Rampur Bazaar|
|Gitanagar Bazaar||Bhandara Bazaar||Chanauli Bazaar||Manakamana|
|Mangalpur Bazaar||Shivanagar Bazaar||Basantapur Bazaar, Madi||Patihani Bazaar|
|Parbatipur Bazaar||Saradanagar Bazaar||Jagatpur Bazaar||Meghauli-Telauli Bazaar|
The district consists of 7 Municipalities, out of which one is a Metropolitan city, five are urban municipalities and one is a rural municipalities. These are as follows:
Chitwan district is also known as the medical city of Nepal. There are many top rated medical institutions in the district, although most of them are situated in and around Bharatpur Municipality. People from all over Nepal and also from North India come here for treatment. The district is especially famous for the cancer hospital at Krishnapur named after B.P. Koirala. After Kathmandu, Biratnagar and Pokhara, it is the most medically sophisticated district of Nepal. Hospitals in the district are listed here.
Chitwan Higher Secondary School is the first school of Chitwan District. It was established in 2011 BS. It is situated in Bharatpur Municipality, Ward No. 10. Not only it having classes of Higher Secondary but it also has the Bachelor's degree in various subjects. Chitwan Higher Secondary School operates graduate courses as Pragya Chitwan Campus. It is the richest government school in Chitwan District. More about Educational institutions in Chitwan